Texas Institute for the Preservation of History and Culture
Documenting the complete history of African American Texans
“Know your history, know yourself“
African descendants have had a presence in Texas for almost 500 years, maybe longer. The territory was the northernmost area of New Spain (Mexico) in 1528 when Esteban (Estevanico), a Moroccan Moor servant, waded ashore with a group of Spanish conquistadors near what is now Galveston Island and established himself as the first known African in what would become Texas. Since, African Americans have contributed significantly in all facets of the building of the Lone Star State — its infrastructure, image, and culture. For that, the Texas Institute for the Preservation of History and Culture is charting every aspect of the black experience in Texas as an online encyclopedia.
VICENTE GUERRERO, “MEXICO’S GREATEST MAN OF COLOR”
Jimena Duran Castellanos is a native of Hidalgo, Mexico and a junior in the PVAMU School of Architecture. As a project during her 2019 summer internship with the TIPHC, she researched and wrote an essay about Vicente Guerrero, the only African-Mexican president of Mexico and the first black president in the Americas. The essay is also in commemoration of his birthday, August 10.
Guerrero became the country’s second president in 1829 after Mexico won its independence from Spain. As president, he championed the cause not only of the racially oppressed but also of the economically oppressed. His greatest achievement was the abolishment of slavery in Mexico on September 16, 1829. The move would prompt Texans several years later to fight for and gain their independence from Mexico.
Read the essay here.
New TIPHC Exhibit!
“Biscuits and Business”
The Legacy of Lucille Smith and Southern Black Chefs
In celebration of Women’s History Month, the Texas Institute for the Preservation of History and Culture presents, “Biscuits and Business: The Legacy of Lucille Smith and Southern Black Chefs.” The School of Architecture artist in residence Marlon Hall, and Assistant Professor of Practice, Ann Johnson have collaborated with TIPHC Director Michael Hurd to co-curate an exhibition dedicated to the legacy of chef and entrepreneur Lucille Bishop Smith, who studied and later taught at Prairie View A&M and is noted as the first black businesswoman in Texas.
In 1937, Lucille Smith was invited to design a Domestic Service Training Program for professors and instructors at Prairie View. She went on to develop the first college-level Commercial Foods and Technology Department that was intelligently paired with an apprenticeship program. Smith was the first black woman to join the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce and for several years her chili biscuits were served on American Airline flights and were also served at the White House. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, President Lyndon Johnson and heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis were among her friends, fans, and customers.
The exhibition at Prairie View will feature original artwork by Ann Johnson, and two documentary shorts by Marlon Hall. Assistant Professor of Art, Renee Smith produced the graphic designs. Johnson’s sculpture students have created unique pieces for the exhibit, and School of Architecture Shop Supervisor Shannon Bryant has assembled an extraordinary team of students that have established the architectural foundation of the exhibition.
The opening reception for “Biscuits and Business” is Thursday, March 28, 2019, from 2-4pm in the TIPHC art gallery, in the Nathelyne Kennedy Architecture Building.
The original Lucille Smith exhibition titled, “Reliquary,” was featured on CBS This Morning, and is on exhibit in the private dining room of Lucille’s restaurant at 5512 LaBranch in Houston. Smith’s great-grandson, chef Chris Williams, opened the restaurant in Lucille’s honor.
Essay: “The Day Freedom Came”
Texas slaves were the last in the country to be officially notified of their freedom because of the Emancipation Proclamation. Since, June 19th, “Juneteenth,” has become a sacred day for African-American communities internationally to celebrate community pride and heritage.
But what about that day itself, in 1865, before the traditional parades, picnics and other events? What was the mood in Galveston — in Texas(!) — for the first citizens to hear those glorious, infamous for some, words of freedom? In this well-crafted piece from genealogist and educator Sharon Batiste Gillins, a Galveston native, we get the answers to those questions and more.
“In the days and weeks that led up to the 19th of June, the newspapers were filled with the latest stories, reports and editorials about the end of the War, the beginning of the peace and the imminent freedom of the enslaved Africans. On June 14th. Galveston Daily News reported that Federal troops would soon arrive in Galveston. The announcement quickly spread throughout the white and black community and the city’s residents were overcome with a curious mix of anticipation and anxiety. Uncertainty permeated the air as they contemplated the consequences of the War’s end and the arrival of Federal troops into the city. Each segment of the population experienced a different set of emotions, the unknown and imagined consequences dissected in print from every angle. That is, every angle except that of the enslaved people whose destiny and very lives would be most impacted.”
Read the entire essay here.
DVD: “Juneteenth, A Celebration of Freedom”
On June 19, 1865 at Galveston, Gen. Gordon Granger of the Union Army announced that the Civil War had ended and all slaves in the former Confederate states were now free. This was two and a half years after President Abraham Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. However, the enslaved in Texas had never received the news of their freedom.
This DVD, produced by the TIPHC, provides an insightful perspective about this significant day in American history that is often misunderstood and overlooked. This is a compelling program that is popular with school classes and community groups alike.
To order your copy — $15.00 — please contact the TIPHC, 936-261-9836.
For a preview, click here.
Genealogy: Civil Rights history and the family of Judge Willie E.B. Blackmon
The former Houston Municipal Court judge recounts his family’s involvement in two prominent Civil Rights cases, Hall v. DeCuir and Brown v. Board of Education. Read his story here.
Support TIPHC Programming and Research
Your donations support research, exhibits, documentaries, internships, cultural events, lecture series, film screenings, Journal of History and Culture publications, outreach and much more. For more information on how you can donate to TIPHC, please contact Mr. Michael Hurd, Director of TIPHC, at (936) 261-9836 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Singer and composer Barry White was born on this date in 1944 in Galveston, but was raised in Los Angeles, where he began his musical career at age 11 playing piano (self-taught) on the Jesse Belvin hit, “Goodnight My Love.” White also made several records during the early 60s, under the name “Barry Lee.” In 1969, he put together “Love Unlimited,” a successful female vocal trio. A five-time Grammy winner, his gravelly, seductive, bass voice also earned him 106 gold and 41 platinum albums, 20 gold and 10 platinum singles, with worldwide sales in excess of 100 million.
Books of interest focusing on black history in Texas. Each week, we feature a different title but also maintain a list of suggested readings.
Sept. 8-14, 2019
By Asher Price
Earl Campbell was a force in American football, winning a state championship in high school, rushing his way to a Heisman trophy for the University of Texas, and earning MVP as he took the Houston Oilers to the brink of the Super Bowl. An exhilarating blend of biography and history, Earl Campbell chronicles the challenges and sacrifices one supremely gifted athlete faced in his journey to the Hall of Fame. The story begins in Tyler, Texas, and features his indomitable mother, a crusading judge, and a newly integrated high school, then moves to Austin, home of the University of Texas (infamously, the last all-white national champion in college football), where legendary coach Darrell Royal stakes his legacy on recruiting Campbell. Later, in booming, Luv-Ya-Blue Houston, Campbell reaches his peak with beloved coach Bum Phillips, who celebrates his star runner’s bruising style even as it takes its toll on Campbell’s body.
Ron Goodwin Blog
Musings on contemporary black history-related topics from the noted PVAMU history professor.
In June 1944, Allied forces began their assault not only on the beaches of Normandy, but on Nazism itself. Dubbed Operation Overlord, the amphibious exercise is legendary as the extraction of France from German control and the beginning of the end of Adolph Hitler’s plans for a thousand year reign of his Aryan master race. The death tolls were staggering on the initial day of the operation. Thousands of Americans gave the greatest sacrifice in
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