Water Resources Engineering

Water Resources Laboratory Facilities and Capabilities

List of equipment available

1. Hydrostatic pressure

2. Bernoulli’s theorem demonstration

3. Impact of a jet

4. Orifice and free jet flow

5. Energy losses in bends

6. Hydraulics bench

7. Hydrostatics bench

8. Hydraulic flow demonstrator or open channel flow unit

9. Pump test rig

10. Pipe surge and water hammer unit


Equipment 1: Hydrostatic pressure

This equipment allows determination of hydrostatic force on a submerged gate.

Equipment 2: Bernoulli’s theorem demonstration

The equipment is meant to demonstrate the variation in pressure and fluid velocity through a transition in pipe diameter. It is connected to standing pipes that allows direct measurement of fluid energy at a point in the flow.

Equipment 3: Impact of a jet

The equipment is designed to support conservation of momentum principle through comparison of theoretical and experimental estimation of force applied by a jet on a stationary plate by displacing it.

Equipment 4: Orifice and free jet flow

The equipment simulates projectile flow out of an orifice-tank set up. The components measure the elevation of the fluid projectile

Equipment 5: Energy losses in bends

This equipment allows measurement of fluid energy in different locations within a pipe with several bends. Students are supposed to measure water height in stand pipes connected to strategic locations in the pipe via flexible rubber tubes.

Equipment 6: Hydraulics bench

This equipment is a stand-alone accessory to which each of the above equipment is connected to complete a fluid flow circuit. The bench contains a tank of water that is pumped through the above equipment to conduct the experiments. Two benches are available to facilitate multiple experiments at a given time.

Equipment 7: Hydrostatics bench

The following lab experiments in fluid properties have been introduced for the first time to facilitate various experiments in hydrostatics:

1. Understanding the properties of fluids:

a. Determining density, and specific gravity of different fluids

b. Determine viscosity of different fluids

c. Observation of the effect of capillarity

2. Understanding the effects of static pressure:

a. Effect of flow on a free surface

b. Measuring liquid level changes

c. Relationship between intensity of fluid pressure and fluid depth

3. Operation and application of pressure gages and manometers:

a. Measurement of air and water pressure using manometers

b. Calibration of pressure gage

4. Buoyant force and stability of floating bodies:

a. Verification of Archimedes’ Principle

Equipment 8: Hydraulic flow demonstrator or open channel flow unit

The following labs experiments in open channel (river, canal, ditches) hydraulics are conducted using this newly acquired unit:

1. Open channel flow characteristics investigation and flow measurements:

a. Fluid energy estimation techniques;

b. Flow over Sharp Crested, Broad Crested and Ogee Weirs (flow rate measuring/control devices);

c. Uniform flow and friction loss;

d. Effect of changes in upstream and downstream water level;

e. Observation of flow patterns associated with flow around hydraulic structures.

2. Design of experiment in open channel hydraulics:

Evaluation of user constructed hydraulic structures base on principles learned in lecture and from the above experiment demonstrations.

Equipment 9: Pump test rig

The following lab experiments in pump hydraulics may be conducted using the newly acquired pump test rig:

Introduction to pump power, efficiency, and energy concepts:

a. Apply knowledge of pipeline hydraulics to determine power delivered by a pump, its efficiency, and energy output;

b. Effect of pumps in parallel and series to the energy output.

Equipment 10: Pipe surge and water hammer unit

This freestanding accessory to the hydraulics bench is used to demonstrate the difference between the phenomena of pipe surge and water hammer and how each is created. The following experiments can be conducted using the unit:

a. Demonstration of pipe surge resulting from slow deceleration of flow in a pipe;

b. Determination of the oscillatory characteristics of a surge shaft used to attenuate pipe surge;

c. Measuring the pressure profile characteristics associated with water hammer due to rapid deceleration of flow in a pipe;

d. Comparison between theoretical and measured pressure profiles associated with water hammer;

e. Determination of the velocity of sound through a fluid in an elastic pipe